Clara Stuligross

PhD Candidate in Ecology

University of California, Davis

I am an ecology graduate student with Neal Williams at the University of California, Davis. I am interested in the direct and interactive effects of environmental stressors on native bees. Specifically, I focus on nutrition and pesticide exposure and their comparative effects on Osmia lignaria and Bombus vosnesenskii fitness, health, and behavior.


  • Bee biology
  • Agroecology
  • Population ecology
  • Conservation


  • PhD Candidate in Ecology, 2016-Present

    University of California, Davis

  • BA in Environmental Studies, 2014

    Earlham College


Monitoring Osmia lignaria nests

I am broadly interested in bee biology, population ecology, and understanding how bees interact with their environments in natural and managed ecosystems. I use a combination of landscape, field cage, and lab experiments to study these interactions at different scales.

Previously, I worked as a science educator at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, a research technician with Rufus Isaacs at Michigan State University studying bee communities in blueberry fields. I was also an undergraduate researcher with T’ai Roulston, Rosemary Malfi, and Wendy Tori studying bumble bee foraging, parasitism, and ecological niche modeling.

See my publications below, and check out this video to learn more about my bees.


Google Scholar

Stuligross, C. and Williams, N.M. 2021. Past insecticide exposure reduces bee reproduction and population growth rate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118: e2109909118.

Page, M.L., Nicholson, C.C., Brennan, R.M., Britzman, A.T., Greer, J., Hemberger, J., Kahl, H., Müller, U., Peng, Y., Rosenberger, N.M., Stuligross, C., Wang, L., Yang, L.H., and Williams, N.M. 2021. A meta-analysis of single visit pollination effectiveness comparing honeybees and other floral visitors. American Journal of Botany 108: 1-12.

Mola, J.M., Stuligross, C., Page, M.L., Rutkowski, D., and Williams, N.M. 2021. Impact of “non-lethal” tarsal clipping on bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii) may depend on queen stage and worker size. Journal of Insect Conservation 25: 195–201.

Stuligross, C. and Williams, N.M. 2020. Pesticide and resource stressors additively impair wild bee reproduction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287: 20201390.

LoPresti, E.F., Goidell, J., Mola, J.M., Page, M.L., Specht, C.D., Stuligross, C., Weber, M.G., Williams, N.M., and Karban, R. 2020. The lever action hypothesis for pendulous hummingbird flowers; experimental evidence from a columbine. Annals of Botany 125: 59-65.

Williams, N.M., Mola, J.M., Stuligross, C., Harrison, T., Page, M.L., Brennan, R.M., Rosenberger, N.M., and Rundlöf, M. 2019. Fantastic bees and where to find them: locating the cryptic overwintering queens for a western bumble bee. Ecosphere 10: e02949.

Malfi, R.L., Walter, J.A., Roulston, T.H., Stuligross, C., McIntosh, S., and Bauer, L. 2018. The influence of conopid flies on bumblebee colony productivity under different food resource conditions. Ecological Monographs 88: 653-671.

Kanaski, A.M.,* Stuligross, C.,* Pareja, J. and Tori, W. 2012. Long-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis). Birds of the World (T.S. Schulenberg, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. (* = co-first authors)

Bombus impatiens colony with RFID tags